Ἡ πρώτη ἐκτύπωσις στὴν Εὐρώπη

Ἡ πρώτη ἐκτύπωση στὴν Εὐρώπη… 6ος αἰῶνας π.Χ.
Ἐπίκλησις στὸν θεὸ Φοῖβο Ἀπόλλωνα.

Ἡ πρώτη ἐκτύπωσις στὴν Εὐρώπη

Φύλλο χρυσοῦ μὲ στρογγυλεμένες ἂκρες.
Αὐτὸ εἶναι τὸ μοναδικὸ δεῖγμα σὲ χρυσό ἀπὸ τὰ φυλακτὰ ποὺ εἶναι γνωστὰ ὡς Ἐφέσια Γράμματα. Οἱ ἀναφορὲς αὐτῶν τῶν φυλακτῶν σὲ ἑλληνικὲς κωμωδίες καὶ ἂλλα λογοτεχνικὰ κείμενα, δείχνουν ὃτι ἦταν μαζικῆς παραγωγῆς καὶ συχνὰ φοριοῦντο. Αὐτὸ εἶναι τὸ μοναδικὸ παράδειγμα ἐκτυπώσιμου φυλακτοῦ. Τὸ λεπτὸ φύλλο χρυσοῦ τοποθετήθηκε ἐπάνω ἀπὸ τὸ πρωτότυπο ποὺ εἶχε ἀνυψωμένα γράμματα καὶ μὲ πίεση ἐκτυπώθηκαν τὰ γράμματα ἐπάνω στὸ φυλακτό.

Συνήθως μὲ τὸν ὂρο ἐκτύπωση ἀναφερόμαστε στὴν χρήση χαρτιοῦ ἢ περγαμηνῆς καὶ μελάνης ἢ χωρὶς μελάνης (τυφλὴ ἐκτύπωσις), ἐφαρμόζοντας πιεστήριο ἢ μικρὰ κινητὰ μέρη ἀπὸ ξῦλο, πέτρα ἢ μέταλλο. Ἒὰν ὁ ὀρισμὸς τῆς τυφλῆς ἐκτυπώσεως περιλαμβάνει καὶ μαλακὰ ὑλικὰ ὃπως ὑγρὸ ἂργιλο, μόλυβδο ἢ χρυσό τὸ φυλλίδιο φαίνεται νὰ εἶναι ἡ πρώτη ἐκτύπωσις στὴν Εὐρώπη! Οἱ παραπάνω πληροφορίες εἶναι εὐγενικὴ παροχὴ τοῦ Dr Dominic Montserrat.

Χλόη

MS 5236
INVOCATION TO THE GOD PHOEBUS APOLLO WHO RULES OVER MAN, POURING OUT LIBATIONS TO HIM, THAT HE MAY TAKE UP ARMS AND GO THROUGH THE ENEMY’S ARMY TO FREE OR DISCHARGE THE PEOPLE; IN HEXAMETER

Printing in Greek on gold, Euboia, Greece, or Knidos, Turkey, ca. 6th c. BC, 1 lamella with rounded corners, 2,8×9,0x0,1 cm, 6 lines in fine Greek capitals of Euboia or Knidos type.

Provenance: 1. Provenance: 1. Edith Horsley, London (1965-2000).

Commentary: This is the only gold example of amulets known generically as ephesia grammata, for lead ones, see Kotansky 111-112. References to them in Greek comedies and other literary texts, suggest that they were mass produced and frequently worn. This is the only surviving example that actually has been printed and not incised, directly into the soft metal. The thin sheet of gold was placed over the prototype with raised letters, and pressure applied to the upper side of the gold in order to print the letters in blind. Normally printing refers to use of paper or vellum and ink, or without ink (blind printing), applying blocks or movable types of wood, stone or metals. If the definition of blind printing also includes soft materials like wet clay, lead or gold, in addition to paper, this lamella appears to be the earliest printing in Europe. The above information is partly kindly supplied by Dr. Dominic Montserrat.

schoyen collection

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