Ὁ Ναὸς τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος στὰ Δίδυμα τῆς Μικρᾶς Ἀσίας.

Ὁ Ναὸς τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος στὰ Δίδυμα τῆς Μικρᾶς Ἀσίας.The temple of Apollo, Didyma, Asia Minor
Ὁ Ναὸς τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος στὰ Δίδυμα τῆς Μικρᾶς Ἀσίας.

Τὰ Δίδυμα/Βραγχίδαι βρίσκονται στὰ δυτικὰ παράλια τῆς σύγχρονης Τουρκίας, στὴν θέση τῆς νεώτερης πόλεως Didim, περίπου 20 χλμ. νότια ἀπὸ τὴν ἀρχαία Μίλητο.

Τὰ Δίδυμα ἀποτελοῦσαν ἕνα ἀπὸ τὰ μεγαλύτερα ἱερὰ τῆς Μικρᾶς Ἀσίας καὶ περιελάμβανε ἕνα ἀπὸ τὰ πιὸ φημισμένα μαντεῖα τοῦ ἀρχαίου κόσμου, ἀνάλογης σημασίας μὲ τὸ μαντεῖο τῶν Δελφῶν στὴν κυρίως Ἑλλάδα. Ὁ ναός, ποὺ ἦταν εὑρύτερα γνωστὸς ὡς Διδυμαῖο, ἦταν ἀπὸ τὰ σημαντικότερα μνημεῖα τῆς Ἀρχαιότητος.

Οἱ ἀνασκαφὲς ἔδειξαν ὅτι τὸ πρῶτο κτίριο τοῦ ἱεροῦ, ὁ λεγόμενος σηκός Ι, χρονολογεῖται περίπου τὸ 700 π.Χ.
Τὸν ὕστερο 7ο καὶ τὸν 6ο αἰ. π.Χ. τὰ Δίδυμα ἔφθασαν ἀναμφίβολα στὸ ἀπόγειο τοῦ κύρους καὶ τῆς ἐπιρροῆς τους στὶς πολιτικὲς ἐξελίξεις τοῦ αἰγαιακοῦ χώρου. Τὴν περίοδο ἐκείνη ὁ Αἰγύπτιος Φαραῶ Νεχῶ καὶ ὁ βασιλιᾶς τῆς Λυδίας Κροῖσος, ἔστειλαν ἀφιερώματα στὸ θεὸ Ἀπόλλωνα.

Στὰ μέσα τοῦ 6ου αἰ. π.Χ. ἄρχισε ἡ ἀνοικοδόμησις τοῦ μνημειώδους ναοῦ, ποὺ ἀπετέλεσε μαζὺ μὲ τὸ Ἀρτεμίίσιο τῆς Ἐφέσου καὶ τὸ Ἡραῖον τῆς Σάμου, ἀπὸ τοὺς σημαντικοτέρους καὶ μεγαλυτέρους ἰωνικοὺς ναοὺς τῶν Ἀρχαϊκῶν χρόνων.

Χλόη

Didyma/Branchidai is situated on the west coast of modern Turkey within the present-day town of Didim, about 20 km to the north of ancient Miletus. Didyma was one of the biggest sanctuaries of Asia Minor. It included one of the most famous oracles of the ancient world, equally important to the oracle of Delphi in main Greece. The temple, which was widely known as Didymaion was one of the most important monuments of antiquity.
The excavations revealed that the first building of the sanctuary, the so-called cella I, was dated around 700 BC. In the late 7th and 6th century BC, Didyma reached the peak of its prestige and its influence in the political evolutions in the Aegean. During this era, the Egyptian pharaoh Necho and the king of Lydia Kroisos send dedications to Apollo.
In the middle of the 6th century BC the rebuilding of the monumental temple began, which consisted along with the Artemision in Ephesos and the Heraion in Samos the biggest and most important Ionic temple of the archaic period.
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Image source: Ionian antiqvities (1769). Chandler, Richard (1738-1810).
Text by Richard Chandler, architectural drawings by Nicholas Revett and drawings by William Pars.

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