Τελικά τά μέτρα κατά τῆς Ῥωσσίας εἶχαν αὐτόν τόν σκοπό; Νά πιεσθῇ καί νά πουλήσῃ μερίδια τῶν κερδοφόων κρατικῶν της ἑταιρειῶν σέ ξένους «ἐπενδυτές»;
Ἀπὸ τὴν ἄλλην…
Ἡ BP, πρὶν τὴν ἐπιβολὴ μέτρων ἀλλὰ καὶ μετά, συνέχισε νὰ συμμετέχῃ σὲ σχήματα καὶ projects στὸν πετρελαϊκὸ τομέα τῆς Ῥωσσίας.
Ἄρα μήπως ἡ πίεσις ἦταν στό νά μποῦν κι ἄλλοι παῖκτες στό παιχνίδι πού ἦταν «κλειστό»;;;
Μέχρι στιγμῆς πάντως σὲ καλὸ ἔχουν βγεῖ οἱ πιέσεις πρὸς τὴν Ῥωσσία, ἀφοῦ ἔκανε στροφὴ στὴν ἀνάπτυξη τῆς ἐσωτερικῆς τῆς παραγωγῆς τροφίμων μὲ σκοπὸ τὴν αὐτάρκεια καὶ αὐτονομία.
Ἐπίσης, ἔκανε στροφὴ στὴν παραγωγὴ ὑλικῶν καὶ ἐξαρτημάτων ποὺ χρειάζονται σὲ διαφόρους τομεῖς αἰχμῆς, ὅπως ὁ πετρελαϊκός, ποὺ πρώτα τὰ εἰσήγαγε ἀπὸ χῶρες τῆς Δύσεως.
Στὴν τεχνολογία, πετᾶ ἐκτὸς κρατικοῦ μηχανισμοῦ ἑταιρεῖες λογισμικοὺ ὅπως ἡ Microsoft, ἀντικαθιστώντας λειτουργικὰ συστήματα καὶ ἐφαρμογὲς κυρίως μὲ ἐλεύθερο λογισμικό, ὅπως τὸ Linux.
Ἡ γνωστὴ BP κρατᾶ μερίδια 19.75% στὴν Ῥωσσικὴ Rosneft.
Δηλώνει, μέσῳ τοῦ Chief Executive Officer Robert Dudley, ὅτι δὲν ἔχει πρόβλημα μὲ τὴν πρόσφατη εἴσοδο νέων μετόχων στὴν Rosneft ὅπως ἡ Glencore καὶ ἡ Ἀρχὴ Ἐπενδύσεων τοῦ Κατὰρ [Qatar Investment Authority (QIA)].
Καὶ οἱ «συμπτώσεις», συνεχίζονται…
Ἡ Glencore γνωστὸ μπουμποῦκι…
An Australian Public Radio report said, “Glencore’s history reads like a spy novel”. The company was founded as Marc Rich & Co. AG in 1974 by billionaire commodity trader Marc Rich. Rich was charged in the US with tax evasion and illegal business dealings with Iran, but pardoned by President Bill Clinton in 2001. He was never brought before US courts, so there was never a verdict on these charges.
In 1993, commodity trading and marketing company Trafigura was split off from Marc Rich’s group of companies. As physical commodities traders like Trafigura, Glencore’s main rivals in 2011 were identified as Vitol and Cargill, amongst others. In 1993 and 1994, after failing to take control of the zinc market and losing $172 million, Glencore’s founder Marc Rich was forced to sell his 51 percent majority share in his own company, Marc Rich & Company AG, to Glencore International, the commodities trading and industrial company.
Due to weak global prices for the assets Glencore owned, particularly coal and copper producers, and for the commodities in which Glencore traded, the company showed a net operating loss of $676 million for the first half of 2015. As of September 2015 the value of its stock had fallen significantly. Concerns financial analysts cited to explain the falling stock price included a weak global commodity market and Glencore’s high level of debt, $30 billion. The company was reducing debt by selling off stock and assets.
Glencore, Dan Gertler and the Democratic Republic of Congo
In 2005, proceeds from an oil sale to Glencore were seized as fraudulent gains as part of an investigation into corruption in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Allen-Mills 17 June 2008).
In the course of the Congo events, Nikanor was merged into Katanga in late 2007 in a transaction valued at US$3.3 billion.
In 2011 Reuters called Glencore as “the biggest company you never heard of,” and described how Glencore and Dan Gertler partnered in Nikanor from 2007 until it merged with Katanga Mining. Reuters called the Nikanor acquisition an example of Glencore’s opportunistic, contrarian, well-funded investment approach—focusing on equity participation, controlling interest, and working upstream from trading relationships.
The acquisition was the culmination of 18 months of deal-making in Congo… [including fighting off a counterbid by] former England cricketer Phil Edmonds…. [Starting i]n June 2007, Glencore and partner Dan Gertler, an Israeli mining magnate, paid GB£300 million for a quarter-stake in mining company Nikanor, which was seeking to revive derelict copper mines next to Katanga Mining’s properties. That deal gave Glencore exclusive rights to sell all Nikanor’s output – an “offtake” agreement…. [Then, on Christmas Eve 2008, … [having] lost 97 percent of its market value over the previous six months … in the depths of the global financial crisis and … running out of cash, Katanga accepted a deal for about US$500 million in a convertible loan and rights issue. Katanga agreed to issue more than a billion new shares and hand what would become 74% to Glencore. … [By early 2011], with copper prices regularly setting records above US$10,000 a ton, Katanga’s stock market value [had reached] nearly US$3.2 billion…. After a US$108 million loss in 2009, after acquisition it posted a 2010 annual profit of US$265 million.
In May 2011 the company launched an IPO valuing the business at US$61 billion and creating five new billionaires. Trading was limited to institutional investors for the first week and private investors weren’t allowed to buy shares until 24 May 2011.
In early 2011, Reuters reports included speculation from Liberum’s Rawlinson that, after an Initial Public Offering (IPO), Glencore could develop an interest in London/Kazakh-based Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation. Glencore said that, contrary to recent reports, it was not interested in bidding for the under-fire group.
Ἱδρυτὴς τῆς Glencore…
Marc Rich (born Marcell David Reich; December 18, 1934 – June 26, 2013)
Rich was born in 1934 to a Jewish family in Antwerp, Belgium. His parents were working-class Jews who emigrated with their son to the United States in 1941 to escape the Nazis. His father opened a jewelry store in Kansas City, Missouri. The family moved to Queens, New York City in 1950, where Rich’s father started a company that imported Bengali jute to make burlap bags. Rich’s father later started a business trading agricultural products and helped found the American Bolivian Bank.
Rich attended high school at the Rhodes Preparatory School in Manhattan. He later attended New York University, but dropped out after one semester to go work for Philipp Brothers (now known as Phibro LLC) in 1954. He worked as a commodities trader for his father, who sought to build an American manufacturing fortune through burlap-sack production.